The Use of Foramen Magnum in The Determination of Sex Using Computed Tomography (CT) Scan Images of Sampled Population Attending National Ear Care Centre Kaduna State, Nigeria

Jaafar, Aliyu ; Tersoo, Moses Asongu ; Farrau, Usman ; Aliyu, I.S ; Adamu, Lawan H. ; Ibrahim, Muhammad Zaria ; Abdullahi, Yusuf Nadabo ; Yusuf, Zaharaddeen Muhammad (2022-12-12)

Original Article

Determination of sex is an important element of human identification which becomes challenging when only only fragments of body parts are available for investigation by forensic experts. This study was aimed at assessing the utility of foramen magnum parameters in the determination of sex among the Nigerian population. A retrospective study was conducted on patients attending National Ear Care Center Kaduna between the years 2017-2019. A total of 399 normal Multislice CT images of skulls (236 males and 163 females) of the age of 18 – 95 years were randomly picked from the archives of the Hospital in the computer database of the Radiology Department. The foramen magnum and occipital condyles parameters were measured by an experienced radiologist. Males tend to have a significantly higher mean value of foramen magnum width, Foramen Magnum Index, the length of the right occipital condyle, and the length of left occipital condyles as well as the width of the right occipital condyle at a p-value ≤ 0.05. The width of right occipital condyles was the only variable that got a significant (p ≤ 0.05) impact on our sex estimation following multiple logistic regression. However, by applying discriminate function analysis the length of the left occipital condyle and width of the right occipital condyle were the only discriminatory variables chosen for this study population. In conclusion, this study indicated that five variables of foramen magnum out of ten were statistically significantly different with males having higher mean values than females. Moreover, the only significant discriminatory variables to determine sex in this study population were the length of the left occipital condyle and the width of the right occipital condyle respectively.