ADAPTATIVE BLOCKCHAIN-BASED APPROACH FOR SECURE SMART HOMES

ALARABI, SHATHA AYED Naser ; العرابي, شذى عايض ناصر ; عمي, مريم . مشرف (2019-04-07)

رسالة (ماجستير)-جامعة نايف العربية للعلوم الأمنية، كلية أمن الحاسب والمعلومات، قسم أمن المعلومات، تخصص أمن المعلومات،

69 ورقة :

مستخلص المادة العلمية :

Internet of Things (IoT) security and privacy remain a major challenge, due to the huge scale and distributed nature of IoT networks. The core of the Internet of things is the sharing of information, where each sensor in smart homes generates digital information to be processed or assembled by a central system.This data remains secure as long as it remains in the user’s device, but once this data is transmitted over the Internet to other users or servers it loses its privacy. Research studies have proven threats faced IoT, Especially hacking and attacks such as denial of service attacks. Recently, an increasing interest by many big companies, industries and applica- tions to adopt innovative technologies within IoT networks in order to preserve its security has emerged.Blockchain technology provides decentralized platform that ensures security. In addition, decentralized distribution helps to counter tampering with data records and allows secure exchange of valuable materials such as funds, stocks or data access rights. However, the blockchain is compu- tationally expensive, which causes network’ delay and involves high bandwidth overhead, which are not suitable for the most IoT devices. This thesis aims to design an approach based blockchain to improve the security of internet of things devices in smart homes and preserve the privacy of user data. To achieve this goal, an approach with an emerging technology is presented in this thesis. The proposed architecture contains four layers: Cloud storage , Hyperledger fabric , Hyperledger composer and smart home layer. The result of this research work not only provides in-depth research of blockchain technology but also proposes a concrete solution with an implementation of blockchain technology to shape a transparent and secure smart home network.Which helps to increase the privacy of individuals and provide complete confidentiality. This solution can track home users transactions this make difficult to hacker to breach

ﺗﮭـﺪف ھـﺬه اﻟـﺪراﺳـﺔ اﻟـﻰ زﯾـﺎدة آﻣـﻦ اﻷﺟﮭـﺰة اﻧـﺘﺮﻧـﺖ اﻷﺷـﯿﺎء ﻓـﻲ اﻟـﻤﻨﺎزل اﻟـﺬﻛـﯿﺔ ورﻓـﻊ ﻣﺴـﺘﻮى اﻟـﺨﺼﻮﺻـﯿﺔ ﻟـﺒﯿﺎﻧـﺎت اﻟﻤﺴـﺘﺨﺪﻣـﯿﻦ، ﺑــﺤﯿﺚ ﯾــﻀﻞ أﻣــﻦ وﺧــﺼﻮﺻــﯿﺔ إﻧــﺘﺮﻧــﺖ اﻷﺷــﯿﺎء ﻣــﻦ اﻟﺘﺤــﺪﯾــﺎت اﻟــﺮﺋﯿﺴــﯿﺔ ﺑﺴــﺒﺐ ﺣﺠــﻢ واﻟــﻄﺒﯿﻌﺔ اﻟــﻤﻮزﻋــﺔ ﻟﺸــﺒﻜﮫ اﻧــﺘﺮﻧــﺖ اﻷﺷـﯿﺎء. وﯾـﻜﻤﻦ ﺟـﻮھـﺮ اﺟﮭـﺰه اﻧـﺘﺮﻧـﺖ اﻷﺷـﯿﺎء ﻓـﻲ ﺗـﺸﺎرك اﻟـﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣـﺎت ﺣـﯿﺚ ﯾـﻘﻮم ﻛـﻞ ﻣﺴـﺘﺸﻌﺮ ﻓـﻲ اﻟـﻤﻨﺎزل اﻟـﺬﻛـﯿﺔ ﺑـﺘﻮﻟـﯿﺪ ﻣـﻌﻠﻮﻣـﺎت رﻗـﻤﯿﮫ ﻟـﯿﺘﻢ ﻣـﻌﺎﻟـﺠﺘﮭﺎ او ﺗﺠـﻤﻌﯿﮭﺎ ﺑـﻮاﺳـﻄﮫ ﻧـﻈﺎم ﻣـﺮﻛـﺰي ، ﺗـﺒﻘﻰ ﺗـﻠﻚ اﻟـﺒﯿﺎﻧـﺎت آﻣـﻨﮫ طـﺎﻟـﻤﺎ ﺑـﻘﯿﺖ ﻓـﻲ ﺟـﮭﺎز اﻟﻤﺴـﺘﺨﺪم وﻟـﻜﻦ ﺑﻤﺠـﺮد اﻧـﺘﻘﺎل ھـﺬه اﻟـﺒﯿﺎﻧـﺎت ﻋـﺒﺮ اﻻﻧـﺘﺮﻧـﺖ اﻟـﻰ ﻣﺴـﺘﺨﺪﻣـﯿﻦ او ﺧـﻮادم أﺧـﺮى ﻓﮭـﻲ ﺗـﻔﻘﺪ ﺧـﺼﻮﺻـﯿﺘﮭﺎ ، أﯾـﻀﺎ اﺛـﺒﺘﺖ اﻟـﺪراﺳـﺎت اﻟﺘﮭـﺪﯾـﺪات اﻟـﺘﻲ ﺗـﺘﻌﺮض ﻟـﮭﺎ اﻧـﺘﺮﻧـﺖ اﻷﺷـﯿﺎء وﻣـﻦ أھـﻤﮭﺎ اﻻﺧـﺘﺮاق واﻟﮭﺠـﻤﺎت ﻣـﺜﻞ ھﺠـﻤﺎت اﻟﺤـﺮﻣـﺎن ﻣـﻦ اﻟﺨـﺪﻣـﺎت. ﻣـﺆﺧـﺮا ازداد اھـﺘﻤﺎم اﻟـﺼﻨﺎﻋـﺎت واﻟـﺘﻄﺒﯿﻘﺎت اﻋـﺘﻤﺎد ﺗـﻘﻨﯿﺎت ﻣـﺒﺘﻜﺮه داﺧـﻞ ﺷـﺒﻜﮫ اﻧـﺘﺮﻧـﺖ اﻷﺷـﯿﺎء ﻣـﻦ اﺟـﻞ اﻟـﺤﻔﺎظ ﻋـﻠﻰ اﻷﻣـﻦ. وذﻟـﻚ ﻣـﻦ ﺧـﻼل ﺗـﻘﻨﯿﮫ اﻟـﺒﻠﻮﻛﺘﺸـﯿﻦ ﻓﮭـﻲ ﺗـﻌﺘﺒﺮ أﺳـﻠﻮب ﺟـﺪﯾـﺪ ﻟـﺘﻨﻈﯿﻢ اﻟـﺒﯿﺎﻧـﺎت إﻻ أن طـﺮﯾـﻘﺔ اﻟـﺘﻌﺎﻣـﻞ ﻣـﻌﮭﺎ ﻣـﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ. إﺿـﺎﻓـﺔ اﻟـﻰ أن ﺣـﺎل ﺗـﻮزﯾـﻌﮭﺎ اﻟـﻼﻣـﺮﻛـﺰي، ﯾـﺴﺎھـﻢ ﻋـﻠﻰ ﻣـﻘﺎوﻣـﺔ اﻟـﺘﻼﻋـﺐ ﻓـﻲ ﺳـﺠﻼت اﻟـﺒﯿﺎﻧـﺎت اﻟـﻤﺘﻨﺎﻣـﯿﺔ ﺑـﺎﺳـﺘﻤﺮار، وﺗـﺘﯿﺢ ﺗـﺒﺎدﻻ آﻣـﻨﺎ ﻟـﻠﻤﻮاد اﻟـﻘﯿّﻤﺔ ﻛـﺎﻷﻣـﻮال أو اﻷﺳﮭﻢ أو ﺣﻘﻮق اﻟﻮﺻﻮل اﻟﻰ اﻟﺒﯿﺎﻧﺎت. ﻣﻦ اھﻢ ﺗﻄﺒﯿﻘﺎﺗﮭﺎ اﻟﻌﻤﻼت اﻟﻤﺸﻔﺮة اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم ﻓﻲ اﻟﻘﻄﺎع اﻟﻤﺎﻟﻲ وﯾﺠﺮي ﺣﺎﻟﯿﺎ. ﺗـﻨﺎوﻟـﺖ ھـﺬه اﻟـﺪراﺳـﺔ اﺳـﺘﺨﺪام ﺗـﻘﻨﯿﺔ اﻟـﺒﻠﻮﻛﺘﺸـﯿﻦ ﻛـﺘﻘﻨﯿﺔ ﻓـ ّﻌﺎﻟـﺔ ﻟﺤـﻤﺎﯾـﺔ اﻟـﻤﻨﺎزل اﻟـﺬﻛـﯿﺔ ، وﺗـﺸﻔﯿﺮ أﻧـﻈﻤﺔ اﻟـﻤﻌﺎﻣـﻼت اﻟـﺮﻗـﻤﯿﺔ. ﻛـﻤﺎ ﺗﮭـﺪف ھـﺬه اﻟـﺪراﺳـﺔ اﻟـﻰ ﺿـﻤﺎن اﻟـﺨﺼﻮﺻـﯿﺔ ﻟـﻸﻓـﺮاد ﺑـﺎﺳـﺘﺨﺪام ھـﺬه اﻟـﺘﻘﻨﯿﺔ وطـﺒﯿﻌﺘﮭﺎ اﻟﻤﺘﺴـﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺑـﺤﯿﺚ ﯾـﺘﻢ ﺗـﺘﺒﻊ أي ﺗـﻐﯿﺮ ﯾـﺤﺼﻞ ﻋـﻠﻰ ھـﺬه اﻟـﻜﺘﻞ و ﻓﮭـﺬا ﯾﺴﮭـﻞ اﻛـﺘﺸﺎف أي اﺧـﺘﺮق ﯾـﻮاﺟـﮫ اﻟﺸـﺒﻜﺔ، ﺗـﻀﻤﻦ ﺗـﻘﻨﯿﮫ ﺳـﻠﺴﻠﮫ اﻟـﻜﺘﻞ اﻟﺴـﺮﯾـﺔ ﺑـﺤﯿﺚ ﯾـﺘﻢ ﺣـﻤﺎﯾـﮫ اﻟـﺴﺠﻼت واﻟـﻤﻌﺎﻣـﻼت ﺑـﺘﻮﻗـﯿﻊ رﻗـﻤﻲ وھـﻲ اﺣـﺪ ﻋـﻤﻠﯿﺎت اﻟـﺘﺸﻔﯿﺮ ﻣـﻤﺎ ﯾـﺰﯾـﺪ ﺳـﺮﯾـﮫ ﻣـﻌﻠﻮﻣـﺎت اﻟﻤﺴـﺘﺨﺪﻣـﯿﻦ. وﻗـﺪ ﺗـﻨﺎوﻟـﺖ اﻟـﺪراﺳـﺔ اﻧـﺸﺎء ﻣـﻨﮭﺞ ﻗـﺎﺋـﻢ ﻋـﻠﻰ ﺗـﻘﻨﯿﮫ ﺳـﻠﺴﻠﮫ اﻟـﻜﺘﻞ ﻟـﺘﺄﻣـﯿﻦ اﻟـﻤﻨﺎزل اﻟـﺬﻛـﯿﺔ ﺣـﯿﺚ ﯾـﺤﺘﻮي ﻋـﻠﻰ ارﺑـﻊ طـﺒﻘﺎت ﻟـﻠﻤﻨﮭﺞ، أوﻻ ﺳـﺤﺎﺑـﮫ ﺗﺨـﺰﯾـﻨﯿﮫ ﺑـﺤﯿﺚ ﯾـﺘﻢ ﺣـﻔﻆ ﺟـﻤﯿﻊ اﻟـﺘﻌﺎﻣـﻼت واﻟـﺒﯿﺎﻧـﺎت اﻟـﻤﺘﺪﻓـﻘﺔ ﻣـﻦ اﻷﺟﮭـﺰة ﺣـﯿﺚ ﺗـﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﺗـﻘﻨﯿﮫ ﺳـﻠﺴﻠﮫ اﻟـﻜﺘﻞ اﺳـﺘﮭﻼك ﻟـﻄﺎﻗـﮫ اﻷﺟﮭـﺰة وھـﺬا ﯾـﺠﻌﻠﮫ ﻣـﻨﮭﺞ ﺧـﻔﯿﻒ وﯾـﺤﻘﻖ اﻟـﺘﻮﺳـﻊ. ﺛـﺎﻧـﯿﺎ ﺗـﻢ اﻧـﺸﺎء ﻧـﻤﻮذج ﯾـﺤﺘﻮي ﻋـﻠﻰ اﻟـﻌﻘﺪ اﻟـﺬﻛـﻲ، ﺛـﺎﻟـﺜﺎ ﺗـﻢ اﺳـﺘﺨﺪام واﺣـﺪه ﻣـﻦ إطـﺎرات ﻋـﻤﻞ ﺗـﻘﻨﯿﮫ ﺳـﻠﺴﻠﮫ اﻟـﻜﺘﻞ وھـﻲ hyper) Fabric ledger ( ﺑـﺤﯿﺚ ﺗـﺘﻤﯿﺰ ﺑـﺎﻟـﺒﻨﯿﺔ اﻟـﻨﻤﻄﯿﺔ ، وﺗـﺴﻤﺢ ﺑـﻤﻜﻮﻧـﺎت ﻣـﺜﻞ اﻻﺟـﻤﺎع وﺧـﺪﻣـﺎت اﻟـﻌﻀﻮﯾـﺔ وھـﺬا ﯾـﺴﺎﻋـﺪ ﻓـﻲ ﺗـﺤﻘﯿﻖ ﻣـﺒﺪا اﻟـﻤﺼﺪاﻗـﯿﺔ ﺑـﺤﯿﺚ ﯾـﺘﻢ اﻟـﺘﻌﺮف ﻋـﻠﻰ ﺟـﻤﯿﻊ اﻟـﮭﻮﯾـﺎت داﺧـﻞ ﺷـﺒﻜﮫ ﺳـﻠﺴﻠﮫ اﻟـﺒﻠﻮﻛﺘﺸـﯿﻦ، وأﺧـﯿﺮا طـﺒﻘﮫ اﻟـﺘﻄﺒﯿﻖ اﻟـﺘﻲ ﺗـﻢ اﻧـﺸﺎﺋـﮭﺎ ﻟـﻼﺗـﺼﺎل ﻣﻊ اﺟﮭﺰه اﻟﻤﻨﺰل اﻟﺬﻛﻲ. وﻗـﺪ أظﮭـﺮت اﻟـﻨﺘﺎﺋـﺞ ان ﺑـﺎﻟـﻤﻨﮭﺞ اﻟـﻤﻘﺘﺮح اﻣـﻜﺎﻧـﯿﮫ اﻧـﺸﺎء ﺷـﺒﻜﮫ ﻣـﻨﺰل ذﻛـﻲ ﺑـﺸﻔﺎﻓـﯿﺔ ﻋـﺎﻟـﯿﺔ وﺗـﺘﺒﻊ ﺟـﻤﯿﻊ اﻟـﻤﻌﺎﻣـﻼت اﻟـﻤﺮﺳـﻠﺔ ﻓـﻲ اﻟـﻤﻨﺎزل اﻟـﺬﻛـﯿﺔ ﻣـﻤﺎ ﯾـﺴﺎﻋـﺪ ﻓـﻲ زﯾـﺎده ﺧـﺼﻮﺻـﯿﮫ اﻻﻓـﺮاد وﺗـﻮﻓـﯿﺮ اﻟﺴـﺮﯾـﺔ اﻟـﺘﺎﻣـﺔ. أﯾـﻀﺎ اﺗـﻀﺢ ﺑـﺎﺳـﺘﺨﺪام ﻣـﻠﻒ ﺻـﻼﺣـﯿﺎت اﻟـﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﯾـﻤﻜﻦ ﺣـﺪ دﺧـﻮل اﻻﻓـﺮاد ﻟﻠﺸـﺒﻜﺔ ﻣـﻤﺎ ﯾـﺆدي ﻟـﻤﻨﻊ اﻻﺧـﺘﺮاق ﻣـﻦ ﺧـﻼل اﺷـﺨﺎص ﺧـﺎرج اﻟﺸـﺒﻜﺔ ﻣـﺎﻟـﻢ ﯾـﺘﻢ اﻋـﻄﺎﺋـﮭﻢ ﺻـﻼﺣـﯿﺎت.ﻛـﻤﺎ ﻗـﺪ ﻧـﺘﺞ ﻋـﻦ اﻟـﺪراﺳـﺔ ﻋـﺪه ﺗـﻮﺻـﯿﺎت ﻣـﻦ أھـﻤﮭﺎ ﺿـﺮورة ﺗـﻄﻮﯾـﺮ و ﺗـﻜﯿﯿﻒ ﺗـﻘﻨﯿﺔ اﻟـﺒﻠﻮﻛﺘﺸـﯿﻦ ﺑـﺎﺳـﺘﻐﻼل ﺧـﺼﺎﺋـﺺ اﻷﻣـﻦ ﻓـﯿﮭﺎ و ﻣـﺤﺎﻛـﺎﺗـﮭﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ أﻧﻈﻤﺔ وﺗﻄﺒﯿﻘﺎت أﺧﺮى ﻟﺘﺸﻤﻞ اﻟﻤﺪن اﻟﺬﻛﯿﺔ.