الأمن الإنساني والأمن التعاوني كمداخل لتطوير السياسات الأمنية العربية
ملخص: الأمن الإنسانى والأمن التعاونى كمداخل لتطوير السياسات الأمنية العربية، تحاول هذه الدراسة طرح رؤية حول تطوير السياسات الأمنية العربية سواء على مستوى الدول، أو على المستوى الإقليمى من خلال تضمين مداخل الأمن الإنسانى والأمن التعاونى في السياسات الأمنية العربية ، وذلك من خلال طرح تلك المفاهيم الجديدة للأمن، ومناقشة مدى صلاحيتها في مواجهة التهديدات الأمنية الراهنة في المنطقة العربية . وتنقسم الدراسة إلى ثلاثة محاور رئيسة، يقوم الباحث في المحور الأول منها بطرح ومناقشة مفاهيم الدراسة، وهى الأمن الإنسانى، والأمن التعاونى، والسياسات الأمنية. ويتضمن المحور الثانى منها رصد أهم التهديدات الأمنية في المنطقة العربية سواء فيما يتعلق بإضعاف الدول العربية، أو التهديدات الاقتصادية، وكذلك قضايا الأمن المجتمعى والصراعات والعنف، والأمن الغذائى، والأمن الشخصى أو الجنائى، وانعكاسات ذلك على أمن الدول العربية فرادى، وكذلك أمن المنطقة. ويتناول الباحث في المحور الثالث من الدراسة بعض ملامح السياسات الأمنية في المنطقة العربية ومحددات تلك السياسات، وتتضمن خاتمة الدراسة طرح لكيفية تضمين أبعاد الأمن الإنسانى والأمن التعاونى في السياسات الأمنية العربية، وانعكاسات ذلك على تحقيق الأمن والسلم والاستقرار سواء في داخل الدول أو في النظام الإقليمى العربى. الكلمات المفتاحية: السياسات الأمنية العربية – الأمن الإنسانى- الأمن التعاونى – الصراعات- العنف................................................ Abstract Observation of the Dimensions of the Humanitarian and Cooperative Security in the Development of the Arab Security Policies By Prof. Mohammad Ahmad Adawy A Professor in the Political Sciences at Assuit Univeristy & College of Law and Political Sciences at King Saud University This study tries to present a vision on the development of the Arab security policies. The development of these policies may be on the international or regional levels by incorporating paths of the human and cooperative security into the Arab security policies. The study offers the new concepts of security, and discusses their validity for confronting the current security threats in the Arab region. It has three main pivots. The first one highlights the study concepts through definition and discussion. These concepts are: the human security, the cooperative security, and the security policies in the light of the various developments affecting them in the 21st century. Moreover, the study explores the relationship between the security sectors and its local and international dimensions. The second pivot attempts to record the most important security threats in the Arab region. These threat are associated with the plots aiming to weaken the Arab countries, the economy threats and the issue related to the community security. The conflicts, violent events, food security, individual or criminal security, and the consequences of such matters threatening the security of every Arab country and the security of the Arab region as a whole. The researcher expresses some indicators and data measuring the effects of such threats. Lastly, the third pivot expounds some aspects featuring the security policies applied in the Arab region. It shows the identifiers of such policies and their development horizons by developing the security concept adopted in the Arab region. The study presents in its conclusive section a suggestion indicating ways for incorporating the dimensions of the human security and cooperative security into the Arab security policies. The impacts of such incorporation on the security and stability of the Arab countries, or on the Arab regional system as a whole, are mentioned in this section. The study offers some recommendations pertinent to the security policies applied inside the Arab countries. It affirms that the Arab countries are suffering from new threats. Accordingly, their security policies should become more protective. The study recommendations can be summarized as follow: • The concept of the traditional security should include protective policies covering the dimensions of the human security. These policies should seek to develop the countries capabilities employed for providing their citizens with the basic needs according to the human security indicators. • The economic security in the Arab countries in particular, and in the Arab region in general, should be supported. This can be realized by promoting the establishment of developmental enterprises in the Arab countries and encouraging the mutual cooperation in this field among them. The small and medium enterprises should be paid more attention. Moreover, the Arab summits direct the efforts for the social and economic development as an important path for activating the joint Arab action. • The number of the agricultural projects and the industries based on them among the Arab countries should be increased. This will enhance the chances of the food security in the Arab countries, and support the Arab countries capabilities in providing their citizens with the commodities. In the same time, it will contribute to the promotion of the investment opportunities and creation of new jobs in the countries that have agricultural resources; such as Sudan and Egypt. • Mechanisms the mutual cooperation in the health sectors among the Arab countries should be available. These mechanisms should include the preparation of accurate statistics and data on the issues concerning health in the Arab world. However, the therapeutic protocols followed in the Arab health institutions should be unified. The joint researches related to health should be supported in order to improve the health security in the Arab countries. • The community security in the Arab countries should be enhanced. This can be achieved by developing mechanisms for dealing with the religious, linguistic and ethnic minorities in the Arab countries. These mechanisms should be based on the principles of citizenship. They should disseminate the values of tolerance and coexistence according to the ideals of the Islamic and Arab culture. Furthermore, any intervention in the Arab countries affairs by foreign countries should be prohibited. • The cooperative security in the Arab region should be realized by promoting the full implementation of agreements signed at the League of Arab States on the developmental and security cooperation and joint defense. The efforts seeking to establish information networks of Arab security should be encouraged. These networks should give a high priority to the early warning of problems and crises affecting the national or regional security of the Arab countries. Subsequently, the new threats; such as violence and terrorism, can be encountered. Moreover, the security policies should be rationalized, and the countries suffering from violence and terrorism should be supported. • The cooperation among the Arab countries for confronting the different forms of the organized crime should be promoted. The organized crime includes sexual offences, narcotic drugs, thefts, economic and electronic crimes, assaults targeting individuals and properties, and arms trade. This cooperation can be strengthened by establishing networks for exchanging information between security authorities; such as Passport and Border Guard departments. The exchange of information with the security bodies around the world in general, and in the Arab region in particular, for monitoring the gangs committing world criminal activities is considered a fruitful effort in this regard. Key Words: Arab Security Policies – Humanitarian Security – Cooperative Security – Conflicts – Violence.