منظومة القيم والأخلاق بين الثقافة العربية الاسلامية والثقافة الغربية : دراسة مقارنة لمنظوري الغزالي وبارسونز
ملخص: البحوث العلمية في منظومة أنساق القيم والأخلاق في العلوم الاجتماعية غالبا ما تدرس بعد واحد من الابعاد العلمية, وهو البعد الوصفي , وذلك باستخدام ادوات قياس مستقلة مثل مقياس سبرنجر, وكلاكهان, وبارك, وروكش . هذه الدراسة ذهبت ابعد من الوصف باستخدامها منهج التحليلات المقارنة من اجل تحليل منظومة القيم والأخلاق بنائيا ووظيفيا وديناميكيا وفقا للنظرية العامة في الفعل والانساق الاجتماعية. فبواسطة استخدام ادوات هذه النظرية الوصفية والتحليليه قامت الدراسة بوصف منظومة القيم والأخلاق في الثقافة العربية الاسلامية وفقا للغزالي, ومنظومة القيم والأخلاق في الثقافة الغربية وفقا لبارسونز , وتحديد مواقعها كعناصر بنائية , وموازين وظيفية لها مخرجاتها على المستوى الشخصي والاجتماعي . واوضحت النتائج ان هناك اتفاق بين الغزالي وبارسونز او بين الثقافتين في عدد من انساق القيم, وان هناك اختلاف بينهم في نسق قيمي واحد, وهذا الاختلاف بسبب اختلاف الثقافتين في بعض متغيراتها...................................... A System of Values and Ethics in Arab Islamic Culture vs. Western Culture: A Comparative Study of Al-Ghazali and Parsons Viewpoint By Dr. Muhammad Bin Hamud Al- Jahni A study of natural systematic blend between values and ethics and its scope is considered an important subject in Sociology and contemporary Human Sciences. In recognition of its relative significance, it became a subject of intensive study and research by past scholars and philosophers. Writings on the subject appeared in both Arabic and English languages. Literary works in Arabic represented Arabic-Islamic culture. Conversely, writing materials in English projected philosophical contributions of three distinct cultures – Christian culture, Greek culture and Jewish culture. To put in simple words, it meant the Western culture The twin competitive cultures – Arab-Islamic culture vs. Western culture – is the central pivot of the present book. The viewpoints of the two leading intellectuals – Al-Ghazali and Parsons are incorporated and compared. They were not contemporaries. A distance of time factor approximating one thousand year existed. Al-Ghazali represented Arab-Islamic culture. His writings were in eloquent Arabic. He was a staunch Muslim scholar. His Qibla was towards the Holy city of Makkah al-Mukarmah. Pasons, on the contrary, represented Western culture. His literary works were in Latin English. He was a fervid Christian. His Qibla was towards Jerusalem. The present study is comparative. It presents the contrasting viewpoints of both Al-Ghazali and Parsons. Also, it is both descriptive and analytic. It focuses on the systematic blend of values and ethics from sociological perspective. To express differently, it constitutes a central area falling within the spectrum of Sociology. The study is conducted through assessment tools. Springers, Galgan Assessment tools represent assessment tools in the Western culture. Key words used in the present study comprise five scholastic concepts – culture, system of values and ethics, general theory on action, Al-Ghazali, and Parsons. The present book comprises two parts. The first part explains research problem. it is represented in a question that explores the viewpoints of convergence and divergence in both competitive cultures – Arab-Islamic vs. Western culture. Also, it explained their objectives as represented in coordinative link of values and ethics in both systems. Further, it identified their viewpoints of similarity and dissimilarity. Moreover, it provided an applied objective by presenting recommendations relative to the preservation system of values and morals as enshrined in Arab-Islamic culture. Included in this part is a presentation to schools variant theoretical trends derived from the coordinative system of values and ethics as a subject. In addition, a framework of research study is included. This comprises key words. Theory of Action and Social Coordination in bi-dimensional contexts – descriptive and analytic – constituting pivotal segments of Sociology are elaborated. Finally, Patterns Variable Scheme is amply expounded. Second part of the present book contains four themes, Conclusion and Recommendation. First theme presents the descriptions of some constituents of culture like language, beliefs and systematic blend of values and ethics. Second theme explains the definition of Al-Ghazali as a key word in the study. Related to it, other issues are expounded – wisdom coordination, ignorance, chastity, viciousness, bravery, cowardice, justice, and brutality. Third theme provides definition of Parsons as a key word for study. Associated with it other points are amplified – generality, speciality, emotional neutrality, emotions, performance, and dissemination. Fourth theme explains variant nature. This is an analytical nature and not descriptive. It suggests an analytical assessment to explore future study on convergent vs. divergent viewpoints between twin systematic blends – values and ethics. In its conclusive section, the present book incorporates the findings of comparisons between two competitive cultures – Arab-Islamic vs. Western cultures. In winding up the present book, the author offers some constructive recommendations. He expresses an optimistic hope that by applying such recommendations, the Arab-Islamic culture will receive reinforcement and promotion. Also, it will ensure national security. Finally, it will provide important personalities of Saudi society towards tangible advance in social control and social development.