مشكلة الأمن المائي العربي وسبل الحد منها بين التراث والمعاصرة
ملخص: مشكلة الأمن المائي العربي وسبل الحد منها بين التراث والمعاصرة، تهدف هذه الدراسة إلى الإسهام في معالجة مشكلة الأمن المائي العربي، وذلك بالاستفادة من محوري التراث والمعاصرة، حيث تبحث في كيفية الدفع نحو إعادة الاستفادة من المكتنزات الهائلة للتراث المائي العربي والإسلامي، مع تعزيز تطبيق المنهجية الحديثة (الإدارة المتكاملة للموارد المائية) في الوطن العربي. الكلمات المفتاحية: الأمن المائي العربي - التراث المائي العربي والإسلامي - الإدارة المتكاملة للموارد المائية - الوطن العربي..................................... The Problem of Arab Water Security and the Ways of Restriction by Utilizing Heritage and Modernism By Dr. Adel Abdul Rasheed Ghulam An Advisor at the General Authority for Environment Protection – Republic of Yemen Water is the most dangerous challenge facing the Arab world. The statistical numbers describing this problem is very disquieting. Therefore, urgent procedures should be taken and strategic dimensions should be followed for encountering the dangers threatening the Arab water security. This study has a great importance. It deals with the water security which is a very critical issue affecting the Arab world. The study seeks to deal with the issue of the Arab water security. It employs the twin approaches – heritage and modernism. The concept of heritage refers to the huge accumulation of the Arab and Islamic water heritage. On the other side, the modernism is expressed through the integral management methodology of the water resources. The study affirms that the Arab world is suffering from a serious water crisis. The Arab world has a distinct heritage. However, this heritage is neglected. Accordingly, the study highlights the importance of the two pivots symbolizing heritage and modernism to the enhancement of the Arab water security. The study presents some findings. The most important are as follow: • The problem of the Arab water security has escalated because of the shortage of the water resources in the Arab world. The inefficiency of the water management plays an important role in the escalation of the problem. Moreover, the problem has negative environmental, social and political effects. • The Arab and Islamic water heritage offers an integral model in preserving the water resources and the better management and development of such resources. The religious base is found in the Arab water heritage. This base represents the Islamic Sharia. The latter pays attention to water and calls for its preservation. The aspects of the organization of water distribution are in compliance with the stipulations as incorporated in the books of Islamic Fiqh and the customary traditions. Furthermore, the scientific and technical aspects are also mentioned in the books related to the hidden water extraction and the water techniques used in this regard. The financing of the water projects and preserving water through water endowments are categorized under these techniques. • The Arabs are famous with the better organization of water consumption. They apply the participatory approach to the water resources management. The Arabs play a pioneering role in innovating the scientific and technical solutions for the water problems. • The Arab countries are interested in applying the integral management methodology of the water resources. This methodology is considered distinctively modern. However, the Arab countries occupy different levels on this methodology application. Moreover, the joint Arab action pays attention to the integral management methodology of the water resources. • Although the Arab and Islamic water heritage include the concurred aspects of the modern methodology of the integral management of water resources, there are other modern models that have root bases in the Arab and Islamic water heritage. However, the accumulation of this heritage has not been taken into consideration by the Arabs in the integral management methodology or in any other methodologies. There is no interest in searching for new solution for the water problems. The absence of innovative and unique ideas, domination of the spirit of imitation, lack of motif to achieve self-reliance constitute the mains causes of recession in this field. Based upon the above-mentioned findings, the study offers the following recommendations: • The Arab countries should seek for finding all possible solutions that are suitable for solving the water security problem. This can be realized by employing the modern scientific achievements or utilizing the overall experiences of grandfathers and heritage accumulations. • The Arab countries should pay attention to the revival and reutilization of the Arab and Islamic water heritage which includes many different aspects such as: • Application of the Islamic Sharia provisions to serve as an ideological religious reference source supporting and motivating the water preservation. • The stipulations discussed by the books of Islamic Fiqh and the customary traditions regarding the organization of water distribution should be followed. These stipulations should be utilized while enacting the laws and regulations concerning the Arab water. • More efforts should be made for establishing water courts in order to settle the water-related-conflicts. The Andalusian Water Court serves as a guiding example for this experience. • Researches on the ways of reapplication and development of water techniques should be carried out. These researches should target the Arab and Islamic water heritage. In addition, the information included in the books of water extraction should be re-examined. • The water endowment should be revived and disseminated for a public asset for financing the water projects. • The Arab countries should make efforts to preserve and maintain their water heritage facilities. The experience of the Sultanate of Oman for maintaining its small rivers represents an illustrative example. • The projects aiming to revive and utilize the Arab and Islamic water heritage should be made and disseminated. The remains of the ablution water used in the mosques should be reutilized for irrigating trees as applied in the experience of the old city of Sana'a. • The establishment of water users societies should be encouraged. It can be a participatory method for managing the water resources. Moreover, the heritage experiences regarding the organization of collective work and participation should be utilized. • The Arab countries should make efforts to enhance the application of the integral management methodology of water resources. The components of the Arab and Islamic water heritage should be incorporated in this methodology. • The self-reliance approach of our ancestors should be adopted. Innovative solutions and techniques suitable to the local environment should be presented.