الرعاية النفسية وسبل النهوض بها جهود عربية وتجارب عالمية
568 ص، 17x24 سم.
يقول الله عز وجل في مُحكم آياته: "الَّذِي خَلَقَنِي فَهُوَ يَهْدِينِ* وَالَّذِي هُوَ يُطْعِمُنِي وَيَسْقِينِ* وإذا مَرِضْتُ فَهُوَ يَشْفِينِ". (الشعراء: آيات 78 – 80). فماذا بعد الخلق والهداية؟ وأي هداية هي؟ إنها هداية الله عز وجل للإنسان، وماذا بعد الطعام والسقاية؟ والأمن لقوت اليوم، فلا صراع ولا تصارع، ولا كبد ولا عناء، وماذا بعد أن خلق الله الخلق لا لشيء إلا لعبادته، لا يريد منهم –معاذ الله- من رزق، ولا أن يطعموه، وأخيرًا حين يمرض الإنسان، فإن الشفاء بيد الله وحده، لتكتمل للإنسان كل نواحي الصحة العضوية والنفسية والروحانية، لا سقم ولا مرض، لا جهد ولا بلاء. لكن الإنسان أوجد لنفسه كلَّ أنواع الجهد والبلاء، دخل في صراعات وحروب، لم يرض بما قسم الله له، عاش منذ بداية نشأته –نشأة الكون– عبر ملايين السنين، باحثًا عن الاستقرار، والأمان، مهرولًا وراء الراحة التي تمنحه الاتزان وراحة البال والصحة النفسية. عاش الإنسان منذ تلك الأزمان، وهو ينشد الطمأنينة لـه ولأبنائه ولأحفاده، ولكن هيهات، ففي عصرنا الحالي المتطور الذي يسير كل شيء فيه بسرعة مذهلة، زادت المشكلات التي تواجه الفرد أو تعترضه، زادت الكوارث والأزمات، الطبيعية وغير الطبيعية، وكثرت حالات الطوارئ، وحوادث العنف والإرهاب، وحالات الاغتصاب، والتجارة بالبشر، والدمار الذي صار يحصد أرواح البشر بلا وازع من دين أو ضمير. وتعددت صنوف الأمراض العضوية، ولم تقف عند حد، وفي تعددها ما يؤكد أنها لا ترجع إلى نوع واحد، ولا تقف عند حدود ضيقة من التعقيد والخطر، وتتفاوت آثارها التي تخلفها في حياة الأفراد والمجتمعات. والإنسان حين يقع فريسة للأمراض والاضطرابات بكمها وكيفها، تضطرب صحته النفسية وتعتل، وتفترسه الأمراض النفسية، العصبية منها والعقلية التي يفقد معها كثيرًا من مباهج الحياة، ويتملكه حينئذ اليأس، ويبعد بعيدًا بعيدًا عن السعادة، وتراه ينشد الرعاية النفسية، والدعم النفسي الاجتماعي ليُعالج من نواتج ما سبق، وتراه يلتمس ملجأ نفسيًّا يتداوى فيه من آثار ما خلفته الأيدي البشرية سعيًا نحو الرعاية والصحة النفسية.
The present book expounds a definition of the Psychological Care. In addition to, the achievement of psychological health unfavorable factors_ global, national, political and familial. Also, it exposes their relative impact on everyone. Such factors serve as impediments. Some persons can overcome. Some others are diffident. Some others, however, try to interact with them. Still some others will likely become weak and fall prey to psychological diseases. They destroy their morale and develop a resistant depression. This book aims to be a reference source for everyone who seeks the psychiatric care, for himself or others in twin realms- theoretical and applied. It serves workers in the psychological field; the specialists in public health and psychological care in their respective fields; students of the various psychological; and social specialties or the non-specialized people. The present book comprises nine chapters: First chapter expounds the psychological health care from past to present. Following issues are discussed_ historical background of human knowledge on the psychological disease and its characteristics; the evolution of psychological care over the ages; the relative dissemination of psychological disease and its consequences; the efforts of psychological care in some Arab countries; and symptoms of a patient who needs a psychiatric care. Second chapter exposes the promotion of psychological care. Following issues are amplified_ description on the content of psychological care, indication of the relative cultural differences in an attempt to achieve a degree of consensus on common characteristics to promote the psychological health through the broad content of public health and its promotion; promotion of psychological care within the context of the strategic plan for the development of health care in Arab countries during the period 2016-2011 A.D; positive psychological health and its trends; social determinants of psychological health; effectiveness of psychological health programs in schools; promotion of psychological health for elderly people; advocacy campaigns for psychological health; and some methods that may enhance the psychological health. Third chapter expounds the definition of the Psychological First Aid. Following points are highlighted_ purpose and importance of the psychological First Aid; explanation of the variant reactions and emotions at time of distress; brief history of the psychological First Aid and its training; Who is targeted by the psychological First Aid?; What are the basic considerations before embarking on the psychological First Aid?; explanation of the rationale for such First Aid; principles of practicing the psychological First Aid; the role of spirituality in time of crises; and people requiring special attention in event of dangers and crises. Fourth chapter expounds the scientific history of psychological rehabilitation. Following subjects are dealt- definition of psychological rehabilitation and its services; the core values and principles that describe the basic elements of practicing the psychological rehabilitation; role of the community-based rehabilitation in the psychological health; the common numerous prevailing the psychological health problems; the human rights of psychiatric patients; the timespan supposed for fulfillment of the psychological rehabilitation; and constituents involving the process of psychological rehabilitation. Fifth chapter expounds the trauma and the posttraumatic stress disorder. Related to the subject, following issue are amplified_ evolution and stages of the trauma concept; narration of the posttraumatic stress disorder; diagnosis of PTSD; theories of PTSD and its forms; PTSD in children; the fate of PTSD; and the treatment of PSTD. Sixth chapter expounds the psychological health and the psychological support in emergencies. Following issues discussed_ definition of the term of psychosocial support; identification of the minimum responses to emergency; the challenges for working in emergency situations; the psychosocial support in the foreseeable future; the role incumbent upon workers in the psychological health support and psychosocial support in emergency situations taking into account the religious and cultural recovery in emergency situations; the key procedures for integrating the social and psychological considerations in extending public healthcare; the key measures in providing access of care to persons with severe mental illness; the key procedures for providing the psychosocial support in educational institutions; and the key procedures for encouraging the methods of constructive corrections. Seventh chapter expounds the community psychological health care according to instructions of World Psychiatric Association. Following points are highlighted_ steps required for implementation of the community-based mental healthcare and the obstacles and mistakes to be avoided; awareness within community about the psychological illnesses; samples of global initiatives to eliminate discrimination against psychological disorders; errors occurring in application on the community psychological healthcare; psychological healthcare legislations; global experiences for the system of community mental healthcare; consideration of the staff working in the psychological care; and child and family psychological care. Eighth chapter expounds the emergency psychology in time of crises and disasters. Included in the presentation, following issues are discussed_ definition of the emergency psychology; legitimacy of emergency psychology and its approach; steps of the personal interview as technique for the emergent psychological intervention in field of disasters; management of mass disasters and psychological crises; Who is qualified to deal with wounded in the hospitals?; Conceptual programs and methods proposed for provision of psychological healthcare in emergency situations; and who deserves to receive psychological health and its services?. Ninth chapter includes means of psychological care and its ways to improvement. An analysis of the applied study conducted by opinion polls related to a set of workers in the Psychological health care; psychiatrists; psychologists; workers in the psychological counseling and guidance. The latter shall reveal their joint intellectual vision of ways they expect to promote the psychological healthcare. The present book offers the following recommendations: • There is grave need to discuss the subject of psychological healthcare and in all public health sectors as well as the psychological and community health centers that offer the psychological services to the community members. The State officials should be urged to grant sufficient attention for the psychiatric hospitals and centers that provide psychological services. The latter should create the right atmosphere and psychological environment conducive for providing the optimal psychological care; • All available means should be employed that should contribute to the promotion of psychological health at present and future. The obstacles that prevent the activation of plans aimed at achieving the psychological security for members of the community should be removed; • Awareness should be disseminated among the psychologists and others who provide the psychological services on the importance of psychological rehabilitation to all community members. This is in disregard to any consideration whether they are normal or psychiatric patients. Attention should be given to those exposed to disasters, crises, crimes and terrorism; • Programs and plans countering the effects of exposure to trauma and the disorder caused to the natural and industrial disasters as well as the incidents of violence, rape and destruction should be worked out. Such programs should include seminars, lectures and discussion sessions to recover them from trauma effects; • Programs should be developed. These programs should provide the psychological and social support as well as the community mental healthcare in emergencies and during periods of crises and disasters. Also, these programs should develop future strategies applicable to the fields_ mental health support; the psychosocial support in emergency situations; merging of social and psychological considerations to reinforce public healthcare; access to care for persons with severe mental illness; and the psychosocial support in the education institutions; • Awareness should be important to the community of the psychological ailments. Also, strategies that contribute to reduce the stigma associated with psychiatric patients should be devised; and • There is dire need to formulate legislations for mental health and the rights of psychiatric patients in particular. Similar legislations should be enacted on public health. Such legislations shall improve and protect such rights.
- الإصدارات العلمية